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Cambria Sacra, or, The history of the early Cambro-British Christians

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Cambria Sacra, or, The history of the early Cambro-British Christians
Original Title Cambria Sacra, or, The history of the early Cambro-British Christians
Author Nedelec, Louis
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Usage Public Domain Mark 1.0freepublicdomain
Topics Wales — Church history
Publisher London, Burns and Oates
Collection folkscanomy_miscellaneous, folkscanomy, additional_collections
Language English
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CONTENTS.
CHAPTER I.
Summary of the History of Religion in Britain, from the Introduction of Christianity, down to the Arrival of St. Germanus, as the Champion of Truth against Pelagianism.
Britain described first by the pen of a Roman General β€” Customs and civilisation of the Britons β€” Bold horsemen β€” Religion represented by Druidism β€” Its organisation β€” The oak tree and the mistletoe β€” Duration of the Roman occupation β€” Its influence on the natives β€” Introduction of Christianity β€” Contrast between the military conqueror and the peaceful messenger of the Gospel β€” St. Peter and St. Paul, St. Joseph of Arimathea, Bran, Claudia, and Pompon ia Grascina β€” Intercourse of nations created by the wide-spread Roman Empire a means in the hands of Divine Providence for the propagation of the Gospel β€” Second and third centuries β€” King Lucius β€” His family β€” Sends Ambassadors to Pope Eleutherius β€” His con- version, and that of his subjects β€” A Hierarchy established β€” The names of Churches built in Britain under Lucius β€” His death and burial in Gloucester β€” St. Mellon β€” First Bishop of Rouen β€” The first nine persecutions against the Church not carried out in Britain β€” Publication of the tenth persecution β€” Constantins puts his household to the test β€” St. Alban, the first British martyr β€” SS. Aaron and Julius, martyrs at Caerleon, on the river Usk β€” Coustantius on his death-bed, at York, foretells better days tor the Christians β€” Constantine Emperor β€” St. Helena β€” British Bishops assist at various Catholic Councils ou the Continent β€” St. Ursula and her companions Martyrs β€” Pelagius, or Morgan β€” Palladios in Ireland and Scotland β€” St. Patrick β€” St. Germanus and Lupus β€” A few observations on the fall of the Roman Empire. (Page 1 to 49.)
CHAPTER II.
The Cambro-Britons and the Papacy.
The history of the British Church, confined to the western part of the island, from the days of Germanus down to St. Augustine β€” In the fifth and sixth centuries Britain, and Cambria in particular, produced a legion of saints, whose history is not generally known β€” Dubricius, Cadoc, Illtyd, and others at the head of this glorious epoch β€” A visit to LlandafF Cathedral β€” Its history by the Verger β€” Wrong notions of the public at large respecting the early Cambrian Church β€” The Britons and the Papacy β€” Pope Eleutherius β€” British Bishops at the Council of Arles, in 314, at the end of which a Synodical Letter was sent to Pope Sylvester, requesting him, as he had universal jurisdiction, to extend the decrees of Arles to the whole Church β€” The first Bishops of LlandafF gave an account of the state of their diocese to the Holy See β€” Councils of Brefi and Caerleon approved by Borne β€” Howell Dda, the Justinian of Wales, goes with the Code to Pope Anastasius β€” St. Kentigern lays his scruples concerning his consecration before St. Gregory β€” Pilgrimages to Rome frequent β€” St. Cadoc β€” Gildas’s present of a bell to the Pope β€” Extraordinary privileges granted to the Pope by the Welsh laws β€” St. Augustine and the British Bishops β€” The British Church, although disobedient, never ceased to acknowledge the supremacy of Rome β€” A similar misunderstanding between St. Patrick and the Church in the South of Ireland β€” Wilfrid and Coleman β€” Urban, Bishop of Llandaff in the twelfth century, writes to Pope Calixtus II. that his See ever acknowledged the supremacy of Rome β€” Catholic Brittany converted to the Catholic faith – by British bishops and monks β€” Unity of faith and religion an idle dream without the Papacy β€” As a citizen, the modem Briton respects authority , as a Christian, he acknowledges none β€” The ancient Cambrian belle and the Pope. (Page 50 to 90.)
CHAPTER III.
The Holy Eucharist. β€” Confession.
Belief of the Cambrians in the Holy Eucharist both as a Sacrament and as a Sacrifice β€” In their eyes the most exalted dignity on earth was that of the Priesthood β€” Gildas rebukes some of the clergy for not celebrating Mass often enough β€” The Britons and the Altar cannot be disconnected β€” St Samson, when leading the life of a hermit, joined his brethren every Sunday for the celebration of the Mass β€” St. Cadoc of Llancarvan killed by the Saxons whilst celebrating Mass β€” St. Winefred slain on the threshold cf a church whilst the Holy Sacrifice was being celebrated β€” Welsh Princes on their knees before the Altar β€” The Altar of Sacrifice stripped and the Church closed β€” Its effect upon the people β€” The Judges, on their appointment, required to take the oath during Mass β€” A woman bringing a suit as to the paternity of a child has to swear before the Blessed Sacrament β€” The informer taken to the church by a priest, and there cautioned against perjury β€” The Indian’s respect for the Catholic Altar β€” Legal punishment of sacrilege β€” Communion at the hour of death a general custom amongst the Welsh β€” Geraint and St. Teilo β€” The priest, whilst travelling to a sick call, cannot by law be a trespasser β€” To be deprived of Communion considered a great punishment β€” According to the Code of Howell Dda, a child is to go to Confession at seven years of age β€” A bishop, by privilege, the confessor of a king β€” Maelgon’s instructions to his soldiers concerning St. Cadoc, his confessor β€” Unreasonable objections against this admirable institution of our Lord β€” Revival of Confession in the Church of England in our days. (Page 91 to 121.)
CHAPTER IV.
Piety to the Dead.
Piety to the dead a sacred and general custom in Britain β€” The Welsh anxious to be buried by the walls of a church or a monastery β€” The devotion for the dead exemplified in Brittany, which received its customs from Britain β€” St. Cadoc made pilgrimages for the souls of his departed relations β€” Prayers for the dead constantly mentioned in Charters β€” The Kings of Glamorgan very particular on this point β€” The murderer praying at the grave of his victim β€” Charter of Gwereck, Duke of Brittany, to St Ninnoc, a Welsh nun β€” Piety to the faithful departed an act of gratitude and justice β€” Piety to the departed reflected in the Celtic tales β€” St. Augustine, the great African Bishop, in his book entitled “Confessions,” requests the reader to pray for his relations β€” The writer makes a similar request. (Page 122 to 146.)
CHAPTER V.
Saints Honoured and Invoked in the British Church.
Doctrine of the Council of Trent on the subject β€” The lives of saints written and read for public edification β€” Beautiful and original sentiments emanating from the pen of the Biographer of St. David, in concluding the life of that saint β€” The names of saints bestowed on towns, villages, valleys, and mountains, both in the land of their birth and that of their labours β€” Pilgrimages to churches- dedicated to saints β€” Custom of settling differences at their tombs β€” King. Arthur, at the battle of Badon, invokes the blessed Virgin β€” Popular tales convey, the same custom β€” The names of. Saints invariably mentioned in Charters β€” Pope Honorious II., in his rescript to Urban, Bishop of Llandaff, uses the same form of expression β€” St. Gunstan, patron of Armorican mariners, in his youth a poor Sailor boy, invoked by the mariner β€” The confidence of our forefathers in the intercession of saints was often a deduction from miracles witnessed in their lifetime β€” Ancient British Hymns to St. Curig and St. Julitta, republished by the Welsh MSS. Society β€” A double hope is entertained by the writer that in course of time the Festivals of the British Saints will be revived in our Missal and Breviary, and that converts to the Church, in their acts of donation for religious purposes, will again make use of the old phraseology, so touching and Catholic. (Page 147 to 170.)
CHAPTER VI.
Monastic Life.
Christian perfection consists in the love of God and of our neighbour β€” The practice of the Evangelical Counsels pointed out by our Lord as the surest road to arrive at that love β€” Religious communities in the Church from the earliest ages of Christianity, in the East and West β€” Monasticism in Britain, and especially in Cambria β€” Monasteries numerous β€” The cloister finds recruits in every class of society β€” Number of monks in three princely families of South Wales in the fifth century, as an illustration of public opinion in those days β€” Numerical strength of some monasteries in Wales β€” Some enter the cloister when young, others in their old age β€” St. Ninnoc β€” Her family and birth β€” Her intended marriage β€” Stratagem she used to obtain the consent of her parents to become a nun β€” Her departure for Brittany β€” Tewdrig, King of Glamorgan, becomes a hermit at Tintem β€” The Cambrians force him out of his cell to lead them, to battle against the Saxons β€” His death β€” St. Suliau β€” Runs away from home β€” His speech to his father’s messengers β€” trials from his sister-in-law for refusing to marry her β€” Legend of St. Efflam and Honora β€” Like St. Alexius, Efflam leaves his wife on the night of their marriage β€” Honora follows her husband to Brittany, and there becomes a nun β€” St. Patern, a mere boy, wishes to follow his father to tho cloister β€” Sent to Cardiganshire β€” The family of Hoel, the first Armorican King, enter religion whilst residing in Cambria β€” The hermit and the Cenobiter β€” Diary of the various exorcises in a cloister β€” Continual public prayers in the great. British. monasteries β€” Extraordinary devotion in Lent β€” Revival of. Monasticism in Britain β€” It cannot be uprooted. (Page 171 to 220.)
CHAPTER VII.
The Saints and Supernatural Events.
The saints endowed with supernatural power in the East as, well as in the West β€” Difference of opinion as to the authenticity of this or that particular miracle β€” St. Dubricius is. favoured in a vision with the designs of Almighty God on St. Samson β€” Visions of St. Patrick in relation to Ireland β€” Tugdual commanded by an angel to cross over to Brittany β€” The same command given to St. Samson β€” Apparition of the dove as a mark of the presence of the Holy Ghost β€” The angel at the hour of death β€” Vision, of St. Keyna β€” Death of Paulus Aurelianus β€” St. David warned of the exact day of his death β€” St. Kentigem sees the soul of David taken up to heaven β€” Prophecy of St. Kentigern concerning the Anglo-Saxon race β€” Advice of St. Gildas for the obtaining of the gift of prophecy to the Bards of Britain β€” The saints cured various infirmities, enumerated in the hymn to St. Armel β€” Privatus’ wife and daughter cured by St. Samson β€” St. Maglorious’ reply to a Breton Prince β€” The miracles of St. Ninianus, in Scotland β€” The saints in connection with wild beasts and the dragon β€” The saints and the devil β€” St. Gunstan and the devil β€” Sacred Wells β€” Sacred springs spoken of in Holy Writ and in early traditions β€” St. Meen β€” St. Tailors well β€” St. Winefride’s well. (Page 221 to 261/)
CHAPTER VIII.
A few Observations on the Services Rendered to Society, by the Early British Monks.
Unfairness of modern opinion in reference to Religious Orders β€” Spiritual and corporeal works of mercy β€” Superiority of the former over the latter β€” Missionary works of the Cambro-British monks β€” St. Patrick and St. Brieuc disturbed even in the cloister by their zeal for the salvation of souls β€” The voyage undertaken by St. Malo in search of the Fortunate Islands, in order to convert their inhabitants to the faith of Christ β€” Pedrog’s journey, for the same purpose, to far-distant India β€” St. Cadoc’s travels to Scotland and Brittany β€” St. Maglorius in his old age wavers between the solitary and the active life β€” Bishops, in the early Celtic Churches, generally chosen from monasteries β€” Provisions by which monasteries secured attention to tho spiritual welfare of the districts surrounding their houses β€” Poetry and numbers made use of, by British missionaries in the instruction of the peoplfe β€” Example of this system of teaching by numbers β€” The monastery a place of refuge in time of distress β€” Extraordinary privileges granted to St. David by his countrymen β€” Minute description of the same in the “Liber Landavensis” β€” St. Meen, the prince, and the prisoner β€” Light-houses built and maintained by monks β€” All necessaries of material life produced within the monastery β€” Perfection and energy of monastic farming operations. (Page 262 to 288.)
CHAPTER IX.
Dubricius, First Bishop of Llaxdaff.
Dubricius at the head of a great period in the history of Britain β€” His birth β€” State of Britain at the time β€” Dubricius consecrated Archbishop of Llandaff by St. Germanus β€” Antiquity of Llandaff β€” Generosity of the Cambrians to religion β€” King Meurig, of Glamorgan β€” A few remarks on the leading characteristics of British Charters β€” Promulgation of the Charter of Meurig β€” Procession along the banks of the rivers Taff and Ely β€” Work of Dubricius in South Wales β€” Education his speciality β€” In his days a great number of women entered the cloister β€” Solemnity of taking the veil β€” Dubricius transfers his See to Caerleon β€” Coronation of King Arthur in that city by the Archbishop β€” Speech of Dubricius at the battle of Badon β€” The Council of Brefi β€” Dies at Bardsey Island β€” The relics of St. Dubricius removed from Bardsey Island to Llandaff β€” The writer’s appeal to the public for help to build a church between the rivers Taff and Ely. (Page 289 to 523.)
CHAPTER X.
St. Teilo, Second Bishop of Llandaff.
How the biographer commences the Life of St Teilo β€” His birth and education β€” Teilo, David, and Padern at Ty-gwyn ar Taf β€” Trial of their virtue β€” Pilgrimage to Jerusalem β€” Teilo elected to the See of Llandaff β€” The yellow plague β€” Emigration to Brittany β€” On his way through Cornwall, Teilo receives the confession of Geraint, a Prince of the province β€” Remains in Armorica for seven years, during the greater part of which time he leads the life of a religious β€” Returns to Llandaff β€” Fulfils a promise made to Geraint, by visiting Cornwall and preparing him for death, β€” Teilo reorganises his diocese β€” During a battle he prays, like Moses, that his countrymen may obtain a victory β€” Miracles performed by St. Teilo β€” His death at an advanced age β€” Dispute about his place of burial β€” The name of Teilo given to localities both in Wales and Brittany β€” “The Liber Landavensis” called “The Book of Teilo.” (Page 324 to 350.)
CHAPTER XI.
Saint Oudoceus, Third Bishop of Llandaff.
St. Oudoceus a Breton by birth β€” On the death of St Teilohe is elected by the people as his successor in the See of Llandaff β€” His administration β€” Councils held under his Episcopacy β€” State of the country β€” Oudoceus and the three Chieftains β€” Measures taken by Oudoceus before pronouncing sentence of excommunication β€” Meurig resists for two years β€” Morgan submits at once β€” Gwardnaeth sent to Brittany β€” Oudoceus undertakes a journey to Rome β€” Towards the end of his days he retires into solitude β€” Comparison between him and St. Ambrose of Milan. (Page 351 to 375.)
CHAPTER XII.
St. Cadoc, Founder of Llancarvan.
Family of St. Cadoc β€” Baptised and educated by Tatliai, at Caer-went β€” Contrast between the monastery and the home of the chieftain β€” Cadoc departs from home β€” The Swine-herd and Cadoc β€” The uncle and the nephew β€” Foundation of Llancarvan Monastery β€” Travels of Cadoc β€” Induces his father and mother to leave the world β€” Cadoc and the princes β€” Maelgwyu and the Abbot β€” King Arthur and Cadoc β€” Life of the founder of Llancarvan during Lent β€” Leaves Llancarvan β€” Departing advice to his brethren β€” His death β€” Cadoc as a Fabulist β€” The man who killed his greyhound β€” The old woman and the yarn, a lesson on unity amongst brethren β€” The Cambrian maiden who allowed herself to be painted β€” Religion painted to suit interests and prejudices β€” A visit to Llancarvan in 1878. (Page 376 to 416.)
CHAPTER XIII.
St. Illtyd the Knight.
Illtyd a name held in veneration by the Celtic traditions β€” Birth and early life β€” Came over to Britain as a soldier β€” Casual meeting of Cadoc and Illtyd at Llancarvan β€” The latter resolves to leave the world β€” The step rendered difficult by the fact that he was married β€” His wife consents to his dedicating himself to the religious life β€” Illtyd a hermit β€” Protects a stag against Merchion and his huntsmen β€” Impression made by the hermit on the Cambrian chieftain, who grants a large tract of land to the recluse β€” Dubricius and Illtyd β€” Antiquity of. Lantwit-Major β€” University of Illtyd in that locality becomes the greatest scat of learning in Britain β€” The system of education at Lantwit made manual labour obligatory β€” Illtyd visited by his wife, Trynihid β€” Refuses to see the lady β€” Persecutions from the agents of his benefactor, Merchion β€” Illtyd secretly leaves his brethren β€” His retreat being discovered, he is forced to come back to Lantwit β€” The latter end of his life veiled in obscurity. (Page 417 to 445.)
CHAPTER XIV.
St. David, the Patron of Wales.
David the popular name in Cambria β€” King Arthur and David contemporaries β€” Birth of the saint attended by extraordinary phenomena β€” Foretold to St. Patrick in a vision β€” David at Lautwit-Major β€” His mother retires to a convent in Brittany β€” David restores sight to his old Principal β€” Pilgrimage to Jerusalem β€” St. David at Glastonbury β€” Restores the first church built in Britain β€” Burial of King Arthur in that locality β€” Monastic life of David β€” The rule of St. David β€” The Council of Brefi β€” David absent in the beginning β€” On his way to Bred restores to life a youth, who becomes bis acolyte during the Council β€” St. Dubricius resigns β€” David chosen to be his successor β€” Puts into canonical form the decrees of Brefi β€” Another Council at Caerleon β€” Both sent to Rome for approval β€” Spirit of that legislation reflected in the subsequent customs of Wales β€” The Archiepiscopal See removed from Caerleon to St. David β€” The Patron of Wales and miraculous wells β€” Ills death β€” Great confidence of his countrymen in his powerful intercession in heaven β€” The three first days of March kept holy in Wales β€” The finest church in the Principality erected to the memory of David. (Page 446 to 479.)
CHAPTER XV.
St. Samson, Archbishop of Dol, Brittany.
Samson’s parents twice before the altar, once on their marriage day, after, on their taking the monastic habit β€” Samson a child of prayer β€” Education entrusted to Illtyd, who prophecied his future career β€” Strong faith of Samson β€” Power of the sign of the Cross β€” Embraces religious life β€” Father and mother at first rather reluctant β€” His exemplary life β€” Hatred borne to Samson by two nephews of Illtyd β€” His residence at Barry Island, near Cardiff β€” Visits his sick father β€” The result of this visit β€” The entrance of father, mother, uncle, and aunt into the cloister β€” Becomes Abbot of the convent at Barry Island β€” Visit to Ireland β€” Retires into solitude β€” Ordered by a Synod to give up this kind of life β€” Consecrated Bishop β€” Circumstances connected with the event β€” Samson’s departure for Brittany β€” Delayed in his voyage β€” A Pagan feast and the Missionary β€” Leaves his father, Amon, behind β€” Meeting of Privatus and Samson on the shores of Brittany β€” Samson and the Frank King β€” Dol and Tours β€” Episcopal work of Salmon β€” His death β€” Heavenly melody heard at his funeral β€” Resume of His wonderful career β€” Extraordinary supernatural assistance he received from his guardian augel. (Page 480 to 516.)
CHAPTER XVI.
St. Paulus Aurelianus, or Paul de Leon.
Early tendency of young Aurelianus to ascetiscism β€” Leaves Lantwit-Major, with the consent of Illtyd, at sixteen β€” The British saints models of temperance β€” Beginning of missionary life β€” First appearance of the angel bidding Paul to leave his country β€” His arrival at Ouessant, an island off the coast of Franco β€” Strange ideas about this island in Pagan times β€” Landing on the shores of Armorica β€” Aurelianus and the wild beasts β€” Arrival of the British colonists at Batz β€” A local Prince becomes their benefactor β€” The people want Paul to be consecrated Bishop β€” Stratagem resorted to on the occasion β€” Paul at the court of the Frank King β€” Return to Armorica β€” Episcopal career β€” The Bishop and the hermit β€” Paul and Tanguy, guilty of the murder of a beloved sister β€” The uncle and his nephew, Jovin β€” Paulus Aurelianus in his old age β€” His death β€” Contention concerning the place of his burial β€” Occismor, the cradle of the British race in Armorica, forgotten β€” Replaced by the small town of St. Paul de Leon β€” Beautiful cathedral erected to his memory β€” Chapel built in the locality by Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland, in thanksgiving for her safety from a storm. (Page 517 to 558.)
CHAPTER XVIII.
St. Gildas the Historian.
Early Life β€” Surnamed the “Aquarius,” or “Water Drinker,” by the students of Lantwit-Major β€” Visits Ireland β€” Missionary life throughout Britain β€” Gildas sails across to Brittany β€” Gildas and the Lady Tripbinia β€” Various monasteries built by Gildas β€” W arned by an angel of the day of his death β€” Orders his body to be thrown into the sea β€” Gildas as a writer β€” Motives which induced him to take the pen β€” Some extracts rom his writings β€” Constantine rebuked β€” Maelgwyn β€” Certain resemblance between St. Jerome and Gildas as writers β€” Britain is described by Gildas β€” Although not more corrupt than other lations of the period, still deserved the severe reproaches of he saint β€” A priest’s duty not to connive at the crimes of lations or individuals. (Page 559 to 584.)

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