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Engineering Physical Metallurgy | Y. Lakhtin

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Engineering Physical Metallurgy
Original Title Engineering Physical Metallurgy
Author Y. Lakhtin
Publication date

Topics engineering, metallurgy, metals, steel, furnace, alloys, zinc, iron, copper, chemical treatment, mehcanical properties
Collection mir-titles, additional_collections
Language English
Book Type EBook
Material Type Book
File Type PDF
Downloadable Yes
Support Mobile, Desktop, Tablet
Scan Quality: Best No watermark
PDF Quality: Good
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mirtitles
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A book on Engineering Physical Metallurgy

This book should be of particular aid to new engineering person- nel, only recently engaged in industry, in coordinating their theo- retical knowledge with the actual engineering practice they en-
counter and should also help them to better understand special treatises on physical metallurgy and heat treatment. More expe- rienced engineers may use it to renew their theoretical knowledge on the subject.
The book may be expediently employed as supplementary read- ing by students of metallurgical and mechanical engineering in- stitutes and technical schools attending courses in general physical metallurgy.
One aim of the author was to elucidate the latest developments made in engineering physical metallurgy, both in the Soviet Union and in other countries. Principal attention is given to the physical nature of the phenomena described.
The author does not claim to have made a complete exposition of all the aspects of physical metallurgy. His intention was merely to set forth the fundamentals of physical metallurgy and heat treatment of steel, cast iron, and nonferrous metals in a consecutive and easily understandable manner.
 CONTENTS
Preface  7 
List of Symbols 9
Chapter 1. Crystal Structure of Metals 11 

1-1. Atomic Structure of Metals 11 
1-2.Allotropy 18 
1-3. Crystallographic Notation of Atomic Planes 19 
1-4. The Structures of Actual: Metal Crystals 20 
1-5. Properties of Metals 24
Chapter 2. Solidification and Metal Ingot Structures 26 
2-1. Solidification of Metals 26 
2-2. Metal Ingot Structure 34
Chapter 3. Plastic Deformation and Recrystallisalion in Metals 38 
3-1. Plastic Deformation 38 
3-2. Recovery and Recryslallisation 45
Chapter 4. Methods for Studying Metal Structure 51
 4-1. Macrostructure (Macrography)51 
4-2. Microstructure (Micrography) 53 
4-3. X-Ray Analysis 59
4-4. Physical Methods for Studying and Inspection or Metals and Alloys 64
Chapter 5. The Mechanical Properties of Metals 73 
5-1. Mechanical Testing of Metals 73
5-2. Tension Tests 73  
5-3. Hardness Test 81  
5-4. Impact Tests 86
5-5. Fatigue Tests 89 
5-6. Tests a Elevated Temperatures 92 
5-7. Fabrication Tests 94
Chapter 6. Binary Alloys. Constitution and Equilibrium Diagram 96
6-1. General Principles or Phase Transformations in Alloys 96 
6-2. The Phase Hule and Equilibrium Diagrams  99 
6-3. Equilibrium Diagram of a Binary System in Which the Components Form a Mechanical Mixture of Crystals in the Solid
State and Are Completely Mutually Soluble in the Liquid State 102 
6-4. Equilibrium Diagram of a System Whose Components Are Mutually Soluble in Both the Liquid and Solid Slates 112 
6-5. Equilibrium Diagram of a System in Which the Components Have Unlimited Solubility in the Liquid State and Form Chemical Compounds upon Solidification 127
6-6. Equilibrium Diagram of a System Whose Components Are Subject to Allotropic Transformations 132
6-7. Diagrams of Ternary Systems 134
Chapter 7. The Iron-Carbon Equilibrium Diagram 142 
7-1. Iron 142
7-2. The Iron-Carbon Equilibrium Diagram 146
Chapter 8. Phase Transformations in the Iron-Carbon System 158 
8-1. Formation of Austenite (Transformations That Occur in
Heating Steel) 158 
8-2. Austenite Grain Growth in Heating 161 
8-3. Transformation of Austenite into Pearlite (Isothermal Decomposition of Austenite) 169
8-4. Transformation of Austenite upon Continuous Cooling 178
8-5. Martensitic Transformation in Steel 183
8-6. Tempering of Steel 187
8-7. Ageing 192
Chapter 9. Heat Treatment of Steel 194 
9-1. Annealing of Steel 195
9-2. Normalising of Steel 202
9-3. Hardening of Steel 204
9-4. Tempering of Steel 226
9-5. Sub-Zero Treatment of Steel 232
9-6. Defects Due to Heat Treatment of Steels 232
Chapter 10. Surface Hardening of Steel 239

10-1. High-Frequency Induction Hardening 239
10-2. Hardening with Electric Contact Resistance Heating 248
10-3. Hardening with Electrolytic Heating 249
10-4. Oxyacetylene Flame Hardening 250
Chapter 11. Chemical Heat Treatment of Steel (Case-Hardening) 
11-1. Physical Principles Involved in Chemical Heat Treatment 273
11-2. Carburising of Steel 
11-3. Nitriding of Steel 
11-4. Cyaniding and Carbonitriding of Steel  282 
11-5. Di!Tusion Coatings 287
Chapter 12. Minor Constituents and Alloying Elements in Steel 295 
12-1. Effects Produced by the Minor Constituents  295 
12-2. Distribution of Alloying Elements in Steel 297 
12-3. Effects of the Alloying Elements on Phase Transformations in Steel 307
12-4. Structural Classes of Alloy Steels 320
Chapter 13. Steel 324
13-1. General Classification 324
13-2. Ordinary and Improved Carbon Structural Steels 326
13-3. Quality Carbon Structural Steels 329
13-4. Carbon Steels for Castings 333
13-5. Free Cutting Steels 334
13-6. Low-Alloy Constructional Steels 335
13-7. Alloy Structural Steels 337
13-8. Tool Steels 353
13-9. Wear-Resistant (Austenitic) Steels 367
13-10. Stainless and Acid-Resistant Steels 367
13-11. Scale-Resistant and Heat-Resistant Steels and Alloys 372
13-12. Magnetic Steels and Alloys 383
13-13. Alloys with Definite Expansion and Elasticity Properties 389
Chapter 14. Cast Iron and its Heat Treatment 391
14-1.Grey Cast Iron 391
14-2. Heat Treatment of Cast Iron 401
14-3. Malleable Cast Iron 403
Chapter 15. Copper and Its Alloys 406
15-1. Copper 406
15-2. Brasses 409 
15-3. Bronzes 413

Chapter 16. Nickel and Its Alloys 423
Chapter 17. Aluminium and lis Alloys 425
17-1. Aluminium 425
17-2. Classification of Aluminium Alloys 427 
17-3. Non-Heat-Treatable Wrought Aluminium Alloys 428 
17-4. Heat-Treatable Wrought Aluminium Alloys 429 
17-5. Aluminium-Base Casting Alloys 437
Chapter 18. Magnesium and its Alloys 442 
18-1. Magnesium 442 
18-2. Magnesium Alloys 442
Chapter 19. Titanium and Its Alloys 446
Chapter 20. Zinc, Lead, Tin and Their Alloys 450 
20-1. Zinc and Its Alloys 450 
20-2. Lead and Its Alloys 451 
20-3. Tin and Its Alloys 452

Chapter 21. Babbitts (Antifriction Alloys) 454
Chapter 22. Rare Metals and Their Alloys 458
References 463 
Index 468
 
Engineering Physical Metallurgy
      
 | Y. Lakhtin
Engineering Physical Metallurgy | Y. Lakhtin
Engineering Physical Metallurgy Original Title Engineering Physical Metallurgy Author Y. L
Engineering Physical Metallurgy
      
 | Y. Lakhtin
Engineering Physical Metallurgy | Y. Lakhtin
Engineering Physical Metallurgy Original Title Engineering Physical Metallurgy Author Y. L
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