New Added

Fundamentals Of Physics | B. N. Ivanov

Likes+11,98050

Fundamentals Of Physics
Original Title Fundamentals Of Physics
Author B. N. Ivanov
Publication date

Topics physics, mechanics, electrodynamics, relativity, hydrodynamics, conservation laws, maxwell’s equations, universe, plasma, electrodynamics, waves, oscillations, atomic physics, nuclear physics, quantum mechanics, light, electromagnetic waves, materials, solid state physics, fields, magnetic field, electric field, stars, conductors
Collection mir-titles, additional_collections
Language English
Book Type EBook
Material Type Book
File Type PDF
Downloadable Yes
Support Mobile, Desktop, Tablet
Scan Quality: Best No watermark
PDF Quality: Good
Availability Yes
Price 0.00
Submitted By
mirtitles
Submit Date

In this post, we will see the book Fundamentals of Physics by B. N. Ivanov.

About the book:

The book being of¬≠fered by the author differs from other existing books on the subject in its nontraditional approach to the course of phys¬≠ics. The principle underlying the preparation of this course can be summarized as follows:¬† “From atom to matter”.

What prompted the author to adopt this approach? In¬≠deed, the creation of new materials with unusual mechani¬≠cal, thermal, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties requires a microscopic approach to the problem and a clear understanding of the practical significance of the approach “from atom to matter”. This means that the scientists and industrial workers engaged in fields like physical materials science, nuclear and semiconductor engineering, laser

This book is intended for those who wish to acquire a deeper knowledge of physical phenomena. It can be used by students of physics and mathematical schools, as well as by those who have finished school and are engaged in self- education. A good deal of the material may be useful to teachers delivering lectures on various topics of physics.

This is not a textbook, but rather a helpbook that should be used in conjunction with the standard textbooks. Nor is the book intended for a light reading, you have to use a pen and paper, think, analyze, and even compute whenever it is necessary. We shall describe physics here in the way re­ searchers understand it today.

Physics essentially deals with the fundamental laws of nature. The progress being made at present in all branches of natural science is due, as a rule, to the introduction of physical concepts and techniques in them. This is besides the fact that a knowledge of physical sciences is essential for new industrial ventures lying at the root of technical progress. Physics is fast becoming an important element in the modern civilization.

The book was published by Mir in 1989 and was translated from the Russian by R. S. Wadhwa. 

PDF | OCR | Bookmarked | 14 MB | 459 pp. | Cover | 300 dpi (upscaled to 600 dpi)

Contents

Preface 5
To the Reader 7

Chapter 1. Unity of Nature 16

1.1. Hierarchy of Natural Objects 16
1.1.1. Elementary Particles 16
1.1.2. Nuclei 20
1.1.3. Atoms and Molecules 21
1.1.4. Macroscopic Bodies 22
1.1.5. Planets 23
1.1.6. Stars. Galaxies. Universe 25
1.2. Four Types of Fundamental Interactions 26
1.2.1. Bound Systems of Objects. Interactions 26
1.2.2. Gravitational Interactions 26
1.2.3. Electromagnetic Interactions 27
1.2.4. Strong (Nuclear) Interactions 27
1.2.5. Weak Interactions 27
1.2.6. Comparative Estimates for the Inten­sity of All Types of Interactions 29 1.2.7. Fields and Matter 29
1.3. Space and Time 30
1.3.1. Scales of Space and Time in Nature 30
1.3.2. Homogeneity of Space and Time 31
1.3.3. Free Bodies and Inertial Motion 31
1.3.4. Inertial Reference Frames. The Relativ­ity Principle 32

Chapter 2. Mechanics of a Material Particle 34

2.1. Coordinates, Velocity, Acceleration 34
2.2. Galilean Transformations 35
2.2.1. Absolute Nature of Dimensions and Time Intervals 36
2.2.2. Relative Nature of Velocities and the Law of Their Transformation 37
2.2.3. Absolute Nature of Accelerations 37 2.3. Law of Motion in Mechanics 37
2.4. Motion of a Material Particle in a Gravitation­al Field 39
2.5. Momentum. Law of Momentum Conservation 42
2.6. Law of Energy Conservation. Applications and Universal Nature of ConservationLaws 43
2.6.1. Law of Energy Conservation 43
2.6.2. Applications of Conservation Laws 46
2.6.3. Universal Nature of Conservation Laws. Angular Momentum 52
2.7. Ultimate Velocity. Mechanics of High-Energy Particles 54
2.7.1. Experiments on Accelerators and Ulti­mate Velocity 54
2.7.2. Lorentz Transformations 55
2.7.3. Relativistic Energy and Momentum 58
2.7.4. Role of Relativistic Constant c in Phys­ics 61

Chapter 3 Electromagnetic Field 63

3.1. Electric Charge 63

3.2. Method of Field Investigation 64
3.2.1. Equation of Motion of a Charge in a Field 64
3.2.2. Laws of Field Transformation 64

3.3. Laws of Electromagnetic Field 66
3.3.1. New Objects and New Mathematics 66
3.3.2. First Field Equation. Relation Between Electric Field and Electric Charge 67
3.3.3. Second Field Equation. Absence of Magnetic Charges 68
3.3.4. Third Field Equation. Relation Be¬≠ tween Current and ‚ÄúSomething‚ÄĚ with a Vortex Magnetic Field 68
3.3.5. Fourth Field Equation. Relation Be­tween a Varying Magnetic Field and a Vortex Electric Field 71
3.3.6. Additional Analysis of the Third Field Equation. Relation Between a Varying Electric Field and a Vortex Magnetic Field 72
3.3.7. Maxwell’s Field Equations 73

3.4. Constant Electric Field 74
3.4.1. Field of a Stationary Point Charge 74
3.4.2. Field of Charges Distributed over a Sphere, Line or Plane Surface 74
3.4.3. Electrostatic Energy of Charges. Field Potential 77
3.4.4. Field of a Dipole. Charge-Dipole and Dipole-Dipole Interactions 80

3.5. Constant Magnetic Field 82
3.5.1. Magnetic Field of a Direct Current 82
3.5.2. Magnetic Field of a Current Surface 82
3.5.3. Magnetic Moment and Its Relation with Mechanical (Angular) Momentum 83

3.6. Motion of Charges in a Field 85
3.6.1. Motion of a Charge in a Constant Uni­form Electric Field 85
3.6.2. Motion of a Charge in a Constant Uni­form Magnetic Field 86
3.6.3. Motion of a Charge in a Coulomb Field 86

3.7. Fields of Moving Charges. Emission 91
3.7.1. Field of a Uniformly Moving Charge 91
3.7.2. Emission by a Charge Moving with an Acceleration 95
3.7.3. Emission by a Charge Moving Uniformly in a Circle 98

3.8. Electromagnetic Waves 100
3.8.1. Some Properties of Radiation Fields 100
3.8.2. Travelling Waves 100
3.8.3. Emission of Electromagnetic Waves by Oscillating Charges. Energy and Mo­mentum of Waves 102
3.8.4. Free Oscillations of a Field. Standing Waves 104

3.9. Propagation of Light 106
3.9.1. Interference of Electromagnetic Waves 106
3.9.2. Diffraction of Electromagnetic Waves 107
3.9.3. Geometrical Optics 109

Chapter 4. Atomic Physics and Quantum Mechan­ics

4.1. Planetary Model of Atom 110
4.2. Experiments on Diffraction of Particles 110
4.3. The Uncertainty Relation 115

4.4. Probability Waves 117
4.4.1. Complex Numbers. Euler’s Formula 118
4.4.2. Complex Probability Waves. The Superposition Principle 119
4.4.3. Limiting Transition to Classical Me­chanics 121

4.5. Electron in an Atom 123
4.5.1. Energy and Its Quantization 123
4.5.2. Angular Momentum and Its Quanti­zation 128
4.5.3. Probability Amplitudes and Quan­tum Numbers 130

4.6. Many-Electron Atom 132
4.6.1. Spin of an Electron 132
4.6.2. Systems of Identical Particles. Quan­tum Statistics 134
4.6.3. Atomic Quantum States 137

4.7. Quantization of Atomic Radiation 139
4.7.1. Quantum Transitions. Line Spectra 139
4.7.2. Photon. The Concept of Parity. Selec­tion Rules 140
4.8. Photon-Electron Interaction. The Photoelec­tric Effect. The Compton Effect 146
4.9. Simultaneous Measurement of Quantities and the Concept of the Complete Set of Meas­urable Quantities 150
4.10. Molecules 151

 

Chapter 5. Macroscopic Bodies as Aggregates of Particles. Thermal Phenomena 155

5.1. The Basic Problem of Statistical Physics 155
5.2. Macroscopic Quantities. Fluctuations 157

5.3. Statistical Analysis of the Gas Model 159
5.3.1. Computer Experiments 159
5.3.2. Reversibility of Microscopic Processes
in Time and Irreversibility of Macro­scopic Processes 160

5.4. Entropy 161 5.5. Temperature 162
5.6. Equilibrium Distribution of Particles in a Body 167
5.7. Thermodynamic Relations 172

5.8. Ideal Gas 176
5.8.1. Matter and Its States 176
5.8.2. Classical and Quantum Ideal Gases 176
5.8.3. Equation of State for an Ideal Gas 178
5.8.4. Heat Capacity of an Ideal Gas 181
5.8.5. Reversible Thermal Processes 184

5.9. Statistics and Thermodynamics of Radiation 188

5.10. Crystals 194
5.10.1. Crystal Lattice 194
5.10.2. Types of Lattice Bonds 195
5.10.3. Mechanical Properties of Crystals 196
5.10.4. Electron Energy Spectra of Crystals 204
5.10.5. Lattice Heat Capacity 206
5.10.6. Electron Gas in Metals 213

5.11. Phase Transitions 218

Chapter 6. Macroscopic Motion of Media. non­ Equilibrium Processes 225

6.1. Nonequilibrium States of Bodies 225
6.2. Macroscopic Motion 226

6.3. Equations of Hydrodynamics of an Ideal Liquid 228
6.3.1. Matter Conservation Law in Hydrody­namics 228
6.3.2. Equation of Motion in Hydrodynamics 231

6.4. Hydrodynamic Analysis of Problems on Viscous Flow, Heat Conduction, and Diffusion 233
6.4.1. Viscosity 233
6.4.2. Flow of a Viscous Liquid Through a Tube 235
6.4.3. Heat Conduction 237
6.4.4. Heat Transfer Between Two Walls 238
6.4.5. Diffusion. Dissolution of a Solid in a Liquid 240

6.5. Kinetic Coefficients in Gases and Their Connec­tion with the Molecular Parameters 242
6.5.1. The Concept of Mean Free Path of Molecules 243 6.5.2. Molecular Treatment of the Diffusion Process 246
6.5.3. Diffusion as a Random Motion of Par­ticles 248
6.5.4. Relations Between Kinetic Coefficients 251

6.6. Resistance to the Motion of Solids in a Liquid 252
6.6.1. Similitude Method. The Reynolds Num­ber 252
6.6.2. Drag at Low Velocities 254
6.6.3. Drag at High (Subsonic) Velocities 257

6.7. Instabilities in Hydrodynamics 259
6 7.1. Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flows 259
6.7.2. Boundary Layer 260
6.7.3. Turbulent Viscosity and Thermal Diffusivity 262
6.7.4. Transition from Molecular to Convective Heat Transfer. Solar Granulation 263

6.8. Oscillations and Waves in a Liquid 266
6.8.1. Various Forms of Wave Motion 266
6.8.2. Wave Characteristics 267
6.8.3. Linear and Nonlinear Waves 269
6.8.4. Solitons and Other Nonlinear Effects 269
6.8.5. Highly Perturbed Media 270
6.8.6. Oscillations of a Charged Drop and the Fission of Heavy Nuclei 271

6.9. Macroscopic Motion of Compressible Media 274
6.9.1. Generalized Form of the Bernoulli Equa­tion 274
6.9.2. Compressibility Criterion for a Medium and the Velocity of Sound 275
6.9.3. Flow in a Tube with a Varying Cross Section 276
6.9.4. Laval Nozzle 277

6.10. Shock Waves 278
6.10.1. Propagation of Perturbations in a Com­pressible Gas Flow 278
6.10.2. General Relations for a Shock Wave 281
6.10.3. Shock Waves in an Ideal Gas 285
6.10.4. The Problem on a High-Intensity Explo­sion in the Atmosphere 289

6.11. Hydrodynamic Cumulative Effects 290
6.11.1. Cumulative Jets 291
6.11.2. Bubble Collapse in a Liquid 296
6.11.3. Converging Spherical and Cylindrical Shock Waves 297
6.11.4. The Role of Instabilities in Suppress­ing Cumulation 297
6.11.5. Emergence of a Shock Wave on the Surface of a Star 298

6.12. Cavitation in a Liquid 299
6.13. Highly Rarefied Gases 301
6.14. Macroscopic Quantum Effects in a Liquid 304
6.15. Generalizations of Hydrodynamics 307

 

Chapter 7. Electromagnetic Fields in Media. Electrical, Magnetic, and Optical Properties of Substances 309

 

7.1. Superconductivity 309
7.2. Electrical Conductivity of Metals 310
7.3. Direct Current 315

7.4. Dielectric Conductance 319
7.4.1. Electrons and Holes. Exciton States 319
7.4.2. Semiconductors 320

7.5. Electric Fields in Matter 322
7.5.1. Field Fluctuations in a Substance 322
7.5.2. Electrostatic Fields in Metals 324
7.5.3. Electrostatic Fields in Insulators. Polar­ization of a Substance 325

 

7.6. A Substance in a Magnetic Field 330
7.6.1. Diamagnetic Effect 330
7.6.2. Paramagnets. Orientation Magnetization 333
7.6.3. Spontaneous Magnetization. Ferromag­netism 335
7.6.4. Magnetic Properties of Superconductors. Quantization of Large-Scale Magnetic
Flux 338

7.7. Alternating Currents and Electromagnetic Waves in a Medium. Optical Properties of Media 342
7.7.1. A.C. Fields and a Substance 342
7.7.2. Induced EMF 343
7.7.3. A.C. Circuits. Solutions of Differential Equations 344
7.7.4. Generation of Electromagnetic Waves 353
7.7.5. Some Laws of Optics and the Velocity of Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves
in a Medium. Reflection and Refrac­tion of Waves 355
7.7.6. Refractive Index of Insulators. Disper­sion and Absorption of Light 361
7.7.7. Refractive Index of Metals. Skin Effect. Transparency of Metals to Hard Radia­tion 364
7.7.8. Nonlinear Optics Effects 365
7.7.9. Lasers 369

CHAPTER 8. PLASMA 373

8.1. General Remarks 373
8.2. Quantum Effects in Plasma. Tunneling of Nuclei Through a Potential Barrier 374
8.3. Relativistic Effects in Plasma. Mass Defect in Nuclear Fusion and Energy Liberated in the Process 379
8.4. Plasma Statistics. Equation of State for Plas­ma. Thermal Radiation of Plasma 380
8.5. Plasma Kinetics. Mobility of Ions and Its Relation with Diffusion. Electrical Conductivity of Plasma 384
8.6. Magnetohydrodynamics and Plasma Instabili­ties. Tokamaks 385
8.7. Oscillations and Waves in Plasma. Propagation of Radio Waves in the Ionosphere 388

CHAPTER 9. STELLAR AND PRESTELLAR STATES OF MATTER 392

9.1. State of Matter at Ultrahigh Temperatures and Densities 392

9.2. Stars as Gaseous Spheres 394
9.2.1. Calculation of Pressure and Temperature at the Centre of a Star 394
9.2.2. Temperature of the Surface and the Total Emissive Power of aStar 396
9.2.3. Energy Transfer in Stars 396

9.3. Sources of Stellar Energy 397
9.3.1. Analysis of Possible Sources of Stellar Energy 397
9.3.2. Nuclear Reactions of the Proton-Proton Cycle 399

9.4. White Dwarfs 401
9.4.1. Possible Evolution of Stars of the Type of the Sun 401
9.4.2. Density and Size of White Dwarfs 401
9.4.3. Limiting Mass of WhiteDwarfs 403

9.5. Superdense Neutron Stars 404
9.5.1. Size of Neutron Stars 404
9.5.2. Rotation and Magnetic Fields of Neutron Stars 405
9.5.3. Radio Emission by Pulsars 406
9.5.4. Internal Structure of Neutron Stars 406
9.5.5. Gravitational Effects in the Vicinity of a Neutron Star 409

9.6. Gravitation and Relativity 411
9.6.1. Equivalence Principle 411
9.6.2. Geometry and Time in Non-inertial Ref­erence Frames 412
9.6.3. Einstein’s Equations 413

9.7.Expansion of the Universe 413
9.7.1. Friedman’s Cosmological Solutions 413
9.7.2. Discovery of “Expansion” of the Uni¬≠verse 415
9.7.3. Critical Density 416

9.8. Hot Universe 418
9.8.1. Discovery of Background Thermal Ra­diation 418
9.8.2. Charge-Asymmetric Model of Early Universe 419
9.8.3. Change in Density and Temperature of Prestellar Matter in the Process of Cosmological Expansion 421
9.8.4. State of Aggregation at Early Stages of Evolution of Hot Universe 422

9.9. Fusion of Elements in Stars 425

Concluding Remarks 432
Appendices 433
Subject Index 447

Fundamentals Of Physics
      
 | B. N. Ivanov
Fundamentals Of Physics | B. N. Ivanov
Fundamentals Of Physics Original Title Fundamentals Of Physics Author B. N. Ivanov Publica
Fundamentals Of Physics
      
 | B. N. Ivanov
Fundamentals Of Physics | B. N. Ivanov
Fundamentals Of Physics Original Title Fundamentals Of Physics Author B. N. Ivanov Publica
We will be happy to hear your thoughts

Leave a reply

eBookmela
Logo
Register New Account